They then show that, while price matters, the effects are primarily driven by the (random) offer of a women-only car. So is this safety or is it stigma? They find that women's perception of safety substitutes for the need of a women-only car, suggesting that this is not just about attitudes ("women should not commute"): safety appears to weigh more than social norms in these women's decision to commute to work. Taken together, these studies highlight the potential of interventions to improve women's safety in public transit to have large impacts on women's LFP in these contexts.
Cutouts is an open source application. Code licensed under the MIT license. Copyright 2018 Siddharth Kannan